The Rockhampton Museum of Art collection is regarded as one of the finest in regional Australia and is of national significance. It is the only regional Gallery in Queensland to hold a representative collection mid-twentieth century Australian art, the works of the 'greats' of Australian modernist painters. Through its collection holdings of historic paintings, objects and photographs, the museum interprets the history and heritage of Rockhampton, Queensland and Australia.

Rockhampton Art Gallery was established in 1967 with the collection today representing a cross-section of interests and influences in the areas of modern and contemporary Australian and Aboriginal art, Japanese and British art.

The development of this collection reflects a history of civic pride and generosity from residents of the Rockhampton region. The collection continues to develop through the support of Rockhampton Museum of Art Philanthropy Board, Friends of Rockhampton Art Gallery, and Rockhampton Regional Council, but also generous corporate sponsorship and benefactors.